TOC: African Islands: Leading Edges of Empire and Globalization

A signaler la sortie de : African Islands. Leading Edges of Empire and Globalization, edited by Toyin Falola, R. Joseph Parrott et Danielle Porter Sanchez, Boydell & Brewer.

Toute la deuxième partie est consacrée à l’océan Indien avec de belles contributions :

PART 2. INDIAN OCEAN ISLANDS

  • Africa’s Indian Ocean Islands, Near and Distant – Edward A. Alpers
  • Monsoon Metropolis: Migration, Mobility, and Mediation in the Western Indian Ocean – William Bissell
  • The Mascarenes, Indian Ocean Africa, and Global Labor Migration during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries – Richard B. Allen
  • The Island as Nexus: Zanzibar in the Nineteenth Century – Jeremy Prestholdt
  • Slavery and Post-Slavery in Madagascar: An Overview – Denis Regnier and Dominique Somda
  • The Comoros: Strategies of Islandness in the Indian Ocean – Iain Walker
  • Gendered Pioneers from Mayotte: An Ethnographic Perspective on Travel and Transformation in the Western Indian Ocean – Michael Lambek

(Dé)construire les archives coloniales (Aix-en-Provence, 27-28 juin)

A la fin du mois, les 27 et 28 juin, aura lieu à Aix-en-Provence un colloque intitulé (Dé)construire les archives coloniales. Enjeux, pratiques et débats contemporains. La rencontre se déroulera aux Archives nationales d’outre-mer.

Les inscriptions sont malheureusement closes car l’espace est restreint mais les présentations devraient être enregistrées et accessibles ensuite.

Signalons, parmi les nombreuses communications qui s’annoncent intéressantes, deux d’entre elles qui porteront sur Madagascar et seront l’oeuvre de deux jeunes chercheurs :

– Charly Jollivet (CNRS, Temos), « Construire l’histoire des archives pour mieux contextualiser les archives coloniales de Madagascar et des Comores »

– Raphaël Gallien (Paris 7), « Le fou invisible ? (Re)penser l’ordre colonial à partir de ses marges : itinéraires, pour une histoire de la folie à Madagascar (1900- 1960) »

Maurice Bloch, Madagascar et l’anthropologie

Le site web de la revue Anthropologie et sociétés, de l’université de Laval, héberge une série d’interviews filmés d’anthropologues et de chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales : “Les Possédés et leurs mondes” (avec une présentation géographique!)

C’est ainsi que trois vidéos d’entretien avec Maurice Bloch sont accessibles !!

  • Livre 1. Mon parcours anthropologique à la London School of Economics, à Cambridge et ailleurs
  • Livre 2. L’anthropologie participante et l’analyse de la pratique ou comment chercher le sens dans l’action
  • Livre 3. Madagascar : valoriser l’histoire, combattre l’exotisme et relier la théorie aux émotions

Journée sur la littérature malgache à l’Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales (Inalco, Paris), le samedi 8 juin 2019

Dates : Samedi 8 juin 2019 – 10:00 – 17:00

Lieu : Inalco, PLC (65, rue des Grands Moulins), Salle 4.07 

Dynamisme et créativité dans la littérature orale malgache et hommage à Abel Andriarimalala

Chaque année, la section malgache du département Afrique et océan Indien de l’Inalco organise, avec l’Havatsa-UPEM (Union des poètes et écrivains malgaches), section France, un rendez-vous autour de la littérature malgache.

Le samedi 8 juin 2019 sera consacré aux genres littéraires oraux, chantés ou déclamés. L’enjeu est de savoir comment évolue cette littérature dans la créativité des artistes malgaches, au travers de son dynamisme et de sa place dans la « modernité ».
C’est à cette question que tenteront de répondre les universitaires et les artistes malgaches qui participeront à cette Journée.
L’on rendra également hommage à Abel Andriarimalala, poète, enseignant de malgache, compositeur et spécialiste de kabary (discours rituel ou officiel), illustre passerelle vivante qui tient à coeur la transmission de ce patrimoine littéraire aux générations.

Entrée libre dans la limite des places disponibles.


PH. Beaujard, Histoire et voyages des plantes cultivées à Madagascar avant le XVIe siècle, Paris, Karthala

Il n’est jamais trop tard pour parler de bons livres sortis récemment !!! Cet ouvrage précis et extrêmement bien documenté, nourri par une connaissance rigoureuse à la fois historique et botanique, conduit à réenvisager l’inscription de Madagascar dans les réseaux indianocéaniques de longue durée.

Résumé éditeur : Cet ouvrage, consacré aux plantes cultivées à Madagascar avant l’arrivée des Européens au XVIe siècle, retrace l’histoire de leur domestication dans leur aire d’origine et leurs trajectoires vers Madagascar, puis à l’intérieur de l’île. Il s’appuie sur une approche transdisciplinaire, combinant linguistique, génétique, archéologie, histoire, ethnographie et agronomie.

Les Austronésiens qui arrivèrent à Madagascar vers le VIIIe siècle apportèrent des plantes du Sud-Est asiatique et des systèmes culturaux bien adaptés aux côtes Nord et Est de l’île, ainsi qu’à une partie des Hautes Terres. Les populations africaines, qui se fixèrent surtout dans un premier temps sur la côte Ouest et dans le Sud, au climat plus sec, introduisirent quant à elles des plantes du continent noir, mais aussi d’autres venues de l’Inde, de l’Asie occidentale et de l’Asie du Sud-Est.

Au fil des siècles, de nombreuses plantes ont connu des introductions répétées, et l’ensemble de l’océan Indien a contribué aux apports des plantes cultivées à Madagascar. Leurs voyages ont suivi ceux des marins et des commerçants dans un océan qui représenta, comme la Méditerranée de Fernand Braudel, un espace culturel tissé par les mouvements des hommes : l’existence d’un commerce transcontinental allant de la Chine à l’est de la Méditerranée et à l’Afrique de l’Est donna aux pays de l’océan Indien une unité historique.

Philippe Beaujard est ingénieur agronome, anthropologue et historien. Il est directeur de recherche émérite au CNRS et membre de l’Institut des mondes africains (IMAF). Outre de nombreux ouvrages sur Madagascar, il a publié en 2012 Les mondes de l’océan Indien (Armand Colin, 2 vol.).

Séminaire océan Indien, Paris Diderot : intervention de Jennifer Cole le 15 mai, 17h-19h

Jennifer Cole (Université de Chicago, IEA de Paris), interviendra mardi prochain au séminaire sur le thème :

The Traffic in Husbands: Leaving Madagascar

Venez nombreux.ses !

Informations pratiques : Séminaire océan Indien – Paris Diderot

Lieu : Place Paul Ricoeur, bât. Olympe de Gouges, salle 864

Horaire : 17h-19h

Université d’hiver austral en Sciences Sociales à Madagascar Tany Vao Mada 2018 : Dead Line 20 Mai

 

Université d’hiver austral en Sciences Sociales à Madagascar
Travail et intégration sociale : Approches méthodologiques et transversales
13 – 21 juillet 2018

L’université d’hiver en sciences sociales Tany Vao Mada 2018 vise à dispenser une formation à la recherche de haut niveau en sciences sociales et à répondre à des besoins forts en termes d’encadrement, de méthodes, et de travail en réseau des doctorants et jeunes chercheurs malgaches (mais aussi de la sous-région) en sciences historiques et sociales. S’inscrivant dans une démarche pluridisciplinaire en croisant les apports des différentes disciplines des sciences sociales (économie, statistiques, socio-anthropologie, histoire, linguistique, géographie, science politique, etc.), elle s’adresse à un public constitué de doctorants mais aussi de professionnels souhaitant approfondir leurs connaissances. Elle entend par ailleurs favoriser la connexion entre la recherche scientifique et la société en permettant à la première de nourrir le débat public et d’aider à la décision politique.

Dead Line pour candidater : 20 mai 2018

Document à télécharger ici :

http://www.dial.ird.fr/enseignement/formations/universite-d-hiver-austral-en-sciences-sociales-a-madagascar/tany-vao-mada-tvm-2018

Pier Larson, Food, Sex and Law at Fort Dauphin (Madagascar) – Collège de France

Dans le cadre d’une journée consacrée aux îles “Historia Insularum : les îles dans l’histoire globale à l’époque moderne“, qui s’est tenue en mars dernier au Collège de France, Pier Larson a présenté une communication intitulée :

Food, Sex and Law at Fort Dauphin (Madagascar): France’s First Colony in the Indian Ocean, 1642-74

Son intervention – ainsi que toutes celles de la journée – peut être écoutée en ligne, via ce lien !

Continuer la lecture

CFP for the 2018 Madagascar Workshop !

Welcome to the 2018 Madagascar Workshop!

Call for papers

We are pleased to announce a new venue for this year’s annual interdisciplinary Madagascar Workshop. This year, the workshop will be hosted by Rutgers University, Newark, in Newark, New Jersey, USA, October 11-13, 2018. Rutgers-Newark is conveniently located near the Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR), as well as the Newark Pennsylvania Station with regular trains into New York City (about a 30-minute ride).

The Madagascar workshop aims to bring together anthropologists, historians and other scholars who share an interest in Madagascar and its diaspora, and to provide a forum for participants to share current research and ideas. The meeting will include formal presentations and informal discussion centered around thematic sessions. Workshop sessions will take place Friday, October 12- Saturday, October 13th. (Special events to be announced soon.)

Continuer la lecture

Between Slavery and Post-slavery Citizenship, Dependence, and Abolitionism in African and Indian Ocean Societies

Between Slavery and Post-slavery

Citizenship, Dependence, and Abolitionism in African and Indian Ocean Societies

Hosted by the University of Mauritius in collaboration with the University of Birmingham and SLAFNET

10-12 April 2018

Problem statement

In October 2014, the international conference Slavery in Africa: Past, Legacies and Present (SLAFCO) was held at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA) in Nairobi. This three-day conference brought together over sixty scholars from all over the world and representatives of African anti-slavery NGOs and civil society organizations.

Building on this first experience of exchange between researchers and activists, ‘Between Slavery and Post-Slavery’ will focus on (1) the recent legacies of past slavery; (2) contemporary forms of exploitation akin to slavery; and (3) the political mobilisation of African grassroots activists and politicians in various countries in Africa and in Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean islands.

(1) Legacies of past slavery: This workshop will explore the political and social marginalization of persons of slave descent in different African societies today. In some contexts, groups of slave descendants are classified, collectively, through labels that indicate slave origins in particular African languages. These labels have derogatory connotations and are often accompanied by ideas about the sociocultural and biogenetic inferiority of those classified as slave descendants. These groups suffer from specific vulnerabilities ranging from political exclusion and ‘second-class citizenship’, to economic exploitation and restricted opportunities for social mobility, to increased exposure to violence and exactions. Contributions focused on slave descent will study identity-based discrimination: what forms it takes and what responses it elicits in terms of resistance and grassroots activism.

(2) Slavery today: A second strand of phenomena examined here is the resilience of actual slavery, as an institution that enables control tantamount to possession over those enslaved. In spite of worldwide legal abolition, slavery has not ended. In the African continent illegal enslavement takes different forms. It can be a consequence of discrimination based on slave descent in areas where erstwhile slave-owners retained power and slave descendants remained vulnerable to extreme forms of exploitation. But slavery does not affect only persons of slave descent. Like elsewhere in the world, in Africa too, there is a persistent demand for cheap and easily controllable labour and exploitable persons. Human trafficking, especially in women and children, is well documented in different African regions and between Africa and other countries. Furthermore, recent African wars resulted in abductions and violence directed against civilians, primarily women, leading to the prosecution of perpetrators for crimes of sexual slavery. Some political movements, such as Boko Haram in Northern Nigeria, openly advocate the legitimacy of slavery as an institution. Contributions focused on slavery will consider its manifestations, discourses about slavery’s (il)legitimacy, and the resistance of those enslaved or at risk of enslavement.

(3) African anti-slavery movements and grassroots activism: A third axis for reflection and discussion will focus on African anti-slavery NGOs and forms of political mobilization against slavery and the discrimination targeted at slave descendants. Some researchers described African anti-slavery NGOs as phenomena of extraversion, aimed at accessing international funding through links with ‘Western’ anti- slavery organisations. But African abolitionist movements are diverse. Some engage more with national politics than with international donors, as in the case of the Zoam Marxist movement founded by Malagasy slave descendants in the 1970s. Undoubtedly some of the main African anti-slavery NGOs benefit from the support of international anti-slavery organisations. But this does not make their struggles any less ‘real’. Their membership and opposition are national and local. Hence the question is not only whether the agenda of African anti-slavery NGOs chimes with the goals of global anti-slavery organisations: it clearly does. More specifically, we invite contributions that explore the meanings and functions of abolitionism in Africa today; the challenges identified by the leaders and grassroots members of these organisations, their driving ideas and political strategies.

Questions

  1. Slave descent, post-slavery, and classificatory slavery:
    1. Following legal abolition, what were the opportunities available to different groups of

      enslaved persons in different African regions and contexts?

    2. What strategies did different categories of slave descendants unfold, and why?
    3. How, if at all, did relations between former slaves and slave-owners change?
    4. Why are certain groups classified as coming ‘from slavery’, with what consequences, and

      giving rise to what forms of resistance and/or identity politics?

    5. How was slavery, as an institution, transformed following legal abolition? What forms of

      labour replaced slave labour? How were the roles of slaves in sexual, reproductive, and domestic domains reconfigured?

  2. Slavery today:
    1. What types of slavery, if any, exist in contemporary African societies? What groups are involved? How do war and conflict influence practices of enslavement?
    2. What forms of resistance, and by which actors, does contemporary slavery gives rise to?
    3. How does the international definition of slavery, based on the 1926 Slavery Convention of the League of Nations, relate to contemporary African phenomena and national legislations?
    4. How is slavery defined and characterised in contexts marked by legal pluralism?
    5. Who, if anyone, defends the legitimacy of slavery today, through which arguments, and with

      what practical consequences?

  3. African anti-slavery movements, neo-abolitionism, and grassroots activism:
    1. What forms does abolitionism take in Africa today, what practices does it give rise to, and what are the ideological roots of different African abolitionist discourses?
    2. What are the main forms of anti-slavery advocacy in Africa today (e.g. national and international NGOs, political parties, grassroots movements, religious associations, etc.)?
    3. Who becomes a member of African anti-slavery movements and why?
    4. What challenges does African anti-slavery activism face and why?
    5. How, if at all, do African abolitionist movements differ from those of African diasporas in Europe and the Americas?

PROGRAMME

DAY 1: Tuesday 10 April – VENUE: ELT 2 Engineering Tower

9.15 – 10.00 Launching Ceremony at the Nelson Mandela Centre

Welcome and introduction

10.00 Tea and coffee served

10.30 – 12.15 PANEL 1: CITIZENSHIP, SLAVE DESCENT, AND THE QUEST FOR EFFECTIVE EMANCIPATION

Chair : Olivette Otele

1. Abena Ampofoa Asare, Disappeared Truth and Reconciliation Commissions (TRCs): The (Im)Possibility of Historical Justice in Contemporary Africa

2. Jimmy Harmon, The FCM Manifesto (2009): A road map to the Afro-Kreols of Mauritius
3. Melchisedek Chetima, A la Quête d’une Émancipation Effective: Esclaves Royaux, Paradoxes

de Statut et Allégeance Politique dans le Lamidat de Rey-Bouba
4. Eric Hahonou, Pourquoi pas nous? Emancipation politique et citoyenneté des femmes gando

au Bénin

12.15 – 14.00 Lunch
14.00-14.45 Keynote address by Sylvio Michel, politician and activist, Mauritius. 14.45-16.15 PANEL 2: THE ENDURING STIGMA OF SLAVE ORIGINS

Chair : Olivette Otele

1. Patrick O. Abungu, The consequences of slavery heritage on memory, identity and human rights in Kenya

2. Klara Boyer-Rossol, After slavery, the emancipation strategies of the Makoa, their stigmatization and the persistence of servile practices in western Madagascar.

3. Valerio Colosio, We are not “sons of the people”. Post slavery, origins and citizenship rights in contemporary Chad.

16.15 – 16.45 Tea break

Presenters: Patrick Abungu and Abubacar Fofana

16.45 – 18.45 Screening of 2 films – The Slave Route, Kenya and Mozambique Cocktail at Institut Francais de Maurice (TBC)

Patrick Abungu and Okoko Ashikoye: “Silent Memories: the Unbroken Chains” – A Chestial Touch Production, Mombasa, 2014, 16:39 min.

DAY 2: Wednesday 11 April – VENUE: ELT 2

MORNING: 4 KEYNOTE ADDRESSES & DEBATE ON AFRICAN ABOLITIONISM 9.00-12.00 PANEL 3: AFRICAN ABOLITIONISM AND ANTI-SLAVERY

Chair Benedetta Rossi

1. Biram Dah Abeid, Mauritanian politician, anti-slavery advocate, founder of IRA-Mauritania, (30 min), Mauritanian abolitionism: ideas and strategies of struggle

Biram Dah Abeid is a leading anti-slavery activist and human rights advocate in Mauritania. He is renowned nationally and internationally for charismatic leadership. In 2008 he founded the Initiative of the Resurgence of the Abolitionist Movement (IRA), an organization committed to eradicating slavery in Mauritania. Because of his successful campaigns of public awareness to end slavery, he has been repeatedly arrested and detained. He has received numerous prizes including the 2013 UN Human Rights Award. In the Mauritanian presidential election of 2014, he ran on human rights agenda as an opposition candidate, but lost to the incumbent Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz.

2. Ali Bouzou, Nigerien activist, anti-slavery advocate, Secretary General of the NGO Timidria, (30 min), Nigerien abolitionism: ideas and strategies of struggle

Ali Bouzou is a Tuareg activist and politician in Niger. He has a long political career in which he fought for the rights of black Tuareg communities. From 2015 to date he is Secretary General of BEN Timidria.

3. Ibrahim Ag Idbaltanat pour Temedt, Malian activists, anti-slavery advocate, founder of the

NGOs GARI and Temedt, (30 min), Malian abolitionism: ideas and strategies of struggle Ibrahim Ag Idbaltanat is an activist in Mali, and founder of the NGO GARI (1987) and Temedt (2006). With these NGOs Ibrahim has advocated for peace and human rights, especially for those of slave ancestry. In recognition of his work, he was awarded the International Slavery Award (2012) and the UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize for the Promotion of Tolerance and Non-Violence (2014).

4. Moses Binoga, Uganda’s National Coordinator Prevention of Trafficking in Persons and Police Commissioner, (30 min), Uganda’s fight against slavery and trafficking in persons

Binoga Moses is a Commissioner of Police in the Uganda Police force, with over 30 years of experience in the Police Force, and since 2013 National Coordinator Prevention of Trafficking in Persons in Uganda. In 2015 he was named Hero Acting to End Modern Slavery in recognition of his efforts to combat this crime.

Discussant: Benedetta Rossi: Reflections on African Abolitionism

12.00-13.00 Lunch

13.00-14.30 PANEL 4: THE TRAFFIC IN WOMEN
Chair Preben Kaarlsholm

1. Ramola Ramtohul, The gender dimensions of slavery in the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius 2. Hannah Baumeister, Forced Marriage in Times of Armed Conflict: A Form of Sexual Slavery? 3. Irene Kamaratou, African women in Greece – a case study

14.30 – 16.00 PANEL 5: BONDED MIGRANT LABOUR, PAST AND PRESENT Chair Stephanie Tamby

1. Preben Kaarsholm, The changing faces of servitude: From slavery and indenture to postmodern labour in the Western Indian Ocean

2. Deepa Gokulsing, Verena Tandrayen-Ragoobur, Priyanka Gopall and Yashna Damry,

Nineteenth Century Indentured Laborers and Today’s Foreign Labor in Mauritius: Any Similarity?

3. Emma Christopher, When Legacies of ‘Old’ Slavery and Methods of Resisting ‘New’ Slavery Overlap: The Banta of Sierra Leone

16.00 -16.15 Tea break

16.15 – 17.00 Transport to carry participants to Le Morne (45-min journey)
17.00 – 21.00 Visit to Le Morne and dinner hosted by Le Morne Heritage Trust Fund (TBC)

DAY 3: Wednesday 12 April – VENUE: TBC

9.00 – 10.30 Panel 6: HISTORICAL SLAVERY: THE PAST OF THE PRESENT? Chair Myriam Cottias

1. Eugénia Rodrigues, The instability of freedom: freeing slaves and their posterity in Mozambique before abolition

2. Valerie Delali Adjoh-Davoh and Kwame Osei-Kwarteng, Pawn child labourers in cocoa exports in the Winneba districts of colonial Ghana 1874- 1920

3. Benigna Zimba BIographies of female slaves: a comparative study of Mozambique and Kenya 10.30 – 11.00 Tea break
11.00-12.30 Panel 7: LANGUAGE AND POWER: SLAVERY IN HISTORICAL AND LEGAL DISCOURSE

Chair Marie Pierre Ballarin

1. Felicitas Becker, Slavery in Tanzanian narratives of statehood
2. Lotte Pelckmans, Mobilising ’slave testimonies’ on internal African slavery: layered authorities

of the written for African anti-slavery cases
3. Sophie Le Chartier, Descendants of Afro-Malagasy or Descendants of Slaves: their experiences

in contemporary Mauritius

12.30 – 13.30 Buffet lunch

13.30-15.30 Panel 8: OPEN DISCUSSION BETWEEN RESEARCHERS, CIVIL SOCIETY, AND ACTIVISTS: WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?

Chairs and facilitators: Vijaya Teelock & Myriam Cottias

Q&A on the ideas discussed during the previous two days, reflections on ‘lessons learned’ from policy advocacy and historical research, suggestions for future work and collaboration.

15.30-16.00 Closing session

Journée « Historiographie et mémoire », autour de 1947, Université d’Antananarivo

Le Département d’Histoire de l’Université d’Antananarivo, en partenariat avec l’Institut Français de Madagascar, organise une journée d’études et d’échanges autour du thème « Historiographie et mémoire ».

Informations pratiques :

  • Date : Mardi 28 mars 2017, à partir de 9 heures$
  • Lieu : Amphi 24, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines

 

Programme

  • Matinée

9h.00-9h.15 : Prise de parole

-Le Responsable de la mention histoire

-Le Doyen de la Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Université d’Antananarivo

– Le Président de  l’Université d’Antananarivo

9h.15-10h.45

– Lucile Rabearimanana, Professeure titulaire: «L’insurrection de 1947 : le point des connaissances, les recherches entreprises et celles à entreprendre»

– Sylvie Andriamihamina, Directrice des Archives nationales : «Le fonds 1947 aux Archives nationales de Madagascar et ailleurs»

– Didier Nativel, Professeur, Université Denis Diderot, Paris 7 : «1947 : entre histoire nationale et perspectives croisées. Mémoires, écritures de l’histoire, comparaison »

Modératrice : Faranirina Rajaonah, Professeure émérite

10h.45-11h.45 : Échanges et débats

11h.45-12h.45 : Pause

  • Après-midi

13h.00h-14h.30

– Felandzohary Razanakolona, historienne et Rolland Raparivo, artiste-peintre : Présentation du tableau «Ny Fandosirana, mars 1947»

– Jeannot Rasoloarison et Denis Alexandre Lahiniriko, Maîtres de conférences : «L’insurrection de 1947 à travers le programme scolaire malgache»

– Frédérique Andriamaro et Roland Rakotovao, Maîtres de conférences : Présentation du film «La perception des jeunes universitaires de la commémoration du 29 mars 1947»

Modératrice : Lolona Razafindralambo, Maître de conférences

14h.30-15h.30 : Échanges et débats

16h.00 :  Synthèse  et clôture

15h.30-16h.00 : Synthèse et clôture

10 mars 2016 : Histoire sociale de l’Afrique orientale, de la mer Rouge et de l’océan Indien

Histoire sociale de l’Afrique orientale, de la mer Rouge et de l’océan Indien

Séance du 10 mars 2016, 15h à 18h
Salle des artistes, Rdc, 96 bd Raspail, 75006 Paris

- Elke Stockreiter, American University, Washington, DC, Dept. of History
Islamic Law, Gender, and Social Change in Post-Abolition Zanzibar

Résumé :
This paper draws on Islamic court records to offer new insights into Zanzibar’s social and legal history during the British colonial period (1890-1963). Based on these hitherto unexplored sources, it revises our understanding of gender roles in a Muslim marriage and within the household. It further challenges studies on slavery and female exclusion from the economic and legal sphere on the East African coast, as the court records demonstrate the ubiquity and social acceptability of female economic agency. They also shed new light on litigants’ use of Islamic courts as well as on Muslim and British colonial officers’ approaches toward Islamic law. Although British interference with Zanzibar’s judiciary dates back to the early nineteenth century, the paper argues that Muslim judges maintained their autonomy within the sphere of family law throughout the colonial era. Contrary to the opinions of scholars and the Zanzibaris themselves, Muslim judges were advancing women’s and ex-slaves’ rights long before the post-colonial period, thereby indicating that class was a more important determinant of women’s identities than gender. The sources further allow us to better understand an important shift in Muslim identity that occurred in the colonial period : whereas Zanzibari Muslims had seen themselves primarily through the lens of religion in the nineteenth century, by the early twentieth century, after the vast majority of freed slaves had adopted Islam, they began to view themselves through the lens of ethnicity. The increasing focus on ethnicity, together with underlying tensions between former slave owners and newly freed slaves, contributed to the outbreak of the revolution of 1964, which ousted the Omani Arab oligarchy.

- Ismail Warscheid, IRHT-CNRS
Translating normative discourse into social facts : Islamic legal literature and the making of society in premodern Western Africa (Mauritania, Mali, southern Algeria)

Résumé :
For several decades now, Islamic legal literature has been serving as a source for the social and cultural history of pre-modern Muslim societies. At the same time, a range of scholars has also raised important methodological caveats by stressing the fact that legal sources are foremost normative texts. When discussing local issues in the language of the fiqh, the intention of Muslim jurists is not so much to preserve the cultural memory of their communities as to think of these issues as a normative problem that, at one moment, has come up either as a case (rafaʿat al-nāzila) or as a generic question (masʾala). In my presentation, I would like to take a step further by examining how normative propositions elaborated by Muslim jurists from the Western Sahara between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries affected social interaction between local pastoral groups. Texts to be discussed are, among others, the Nawāzil of al-Sharīf Ḥamāh Allāh from Tishit (d. 1755), the Ghunya compiled in the Algerian Tuwat oasis during the first half of the nineteenth century, and the Kitāb al-Bādiya written by the Mauritanian nomadic scholar Muḥammad al-Māmī (d. 1865-6).

http://imaf.cnrs.fr/spip.php?article1917